New Results from "BigY" Tests

We present below draft phylogenetic trees for BigY results for our R1a and R1b testees.

The R1a "Norse" Groups

We first present data for the R1a participants represented in our results pages (other than Yellow and Orange groups) R1a groups.The data for these trees comes from Big Y tests taken at Family Tree DNA, as well as sequencing done by Full Genomes Corp.

As discussed elsewhere on the web site DNA tests classify people in two ways. One is on a large scale, into things called "Haplogroups". These are arranged in an hierarchical manner. Your basal haplogroup is shown at FTDNA under your tab "Haplotree and SNPs". Everyone discussed here should be either R-CTS4179 or downstream. The big charts on our web pages that contain all our people show long lists of "STR" numbers. The chart on this page is not based on the STRs but on newly discovered SNPs. Our chart here corresponds to the chart in FTDNA's "Haplotree and SNPs" except that the upper right and lower left corners are swapped. Each darker tan box stretching across the page from left to right represents a Haplogroup, for example R-CTS4179, R-FGC11904, R-L176.1, R- YP280, etc. Most of these Haplogroups are newly discovered in the BigY study, and not all appear at FTDNA. The lighter tan boxes below these represent the individual people who did the BigY or Full Genomes test. The long numbers like 2891073 or 17761211 in the tan boxes give the location on the Y chromosome of the newly discovered SNPs. The exact position on the chromosome is meaningless; you can just consider these numbers are alternate names for the new SNPs. Some of these have been given formal names by various groups (FGC by the Full Genomes company, YP for an FTDNA-based project similar to ours, specific to all of R1a and based in Poland, CLFY by Chris Morley and CLD for ones discovered by our project). We have named only ones that have particular importance for us.

As you go from top to bottom in this figure, time increases. CTS4179 itself occurred roughly 3200 years ago in Scandinavia, and essentially corresponds in our main data lists which list "STRs", not "SNPs" to the transition from YCAII = 19,23 to YCAII = 19,21. The mutation YP280 occurred about 300 A.D.. The existance of one R1a person named McDougal is tenuous DNA evidence that Somerled himself was R1a, as by tradition the McDougal line arose in one of his sons. CLD56 and CLD57 (bottom very wide dark tan box) occurred about 1200 A.D. according to the DNA. The most likely person, according to the known Clan genealogy, in whom the mutations CLD56 and CLD57 occurred is John, first Lord of the Isles, died 1386. The difference between 1200 and say 1360 (when he would have been having his sons) is well within the usual error of the DNA estimates. The names at the bottom are those in the line of Somerled in whom we presume the mutations occurred.

The people in the green area of the chart belong to our Green R1a group. Those to their right, whatever the background color, are in various other groups. Several new subclades of CTS4179 distinct from those in the Clan Donald project are now known. The labels at the bottom of the chart, in the colored areas, represent our best guess as to the historical or genetic event that corresponds to the founding of that haplogroup.

The lines below the Clan Donald codes show the particular Clan Donald subgroup to which the testees believe they belong. Certain SNPs definitely show that a person belongs to a certain group. Being CLD12+ shows that a man is either Clanranald or Glengarry. Being CLD12- show that he is not Clanranald or Glengarry. Being CLD50+ shows that he is Clanranald or a subgroup of that. YP6398+ is Glengarry. Being CLD18+ shows that he is Sleat. Being CLD18- likely shows that he is not in Sleat, but is not yet absolute proof. CLD27+ people descend from a person in the Sleat line no later than Donald Gruamach, 4th of Sleat. These is a tradition that one person who has tested positive for CLD25 is from Clan Donald South. We have arranged to have tests made available for some of the SNPs delineating these groups either at a company called Yseq or at FTDNA itself. We urge many of you in the R1a Magenta, Ref-Black, Green or Orange groups to test for these, however we very strongly encourage you to discuss these purchases with us before buying, at the email address below. It is important in each case to understand what does or does not determine definitive evidence of being from a particular Clan subgroup. Particularly recommended is the "Z284 SNP Pack" from FamilyTreeDNA. If you are in one of those groups and it is not offered for sale on your FTDNA web page, please contact us.

DYS459 = 9-10
DYS459 = 9-10 
DYS459 = 8-10
DYS459 = 8-10, Somerled lies near the right of this area
Somerled or Angus Mor
John, Lord of the Isles (d. 1387)
Glengarry or
Clanranald
Glengarry
Clanranald
Mostly
Scandinavian
subclades
&CXVNQ
Magoon

Green
Several
Scandinavian
names
&PREME
(Scandinavian)

Green
&P2OO4
Sivertsen

Green
&73NZU
Waltersson

Green
&GWHZA
McIntosh

Green
&VRYM5
Collins

Green
&6IEL6
Faulk

Green
&Q46AU
Morland

Green
&TYMFC
Home

Magenta
&QWJ8Q
Scott

Magenta
&J5MPY
Perkins

Gray
&BFUBA
Brocks

Gray
&WBBIV
Rodger
(McDonald)
Magenta
&STDHL
MacNeil

Magenta
&Y9QSQ
McLean

Magenta
&AV1VS
McEachron

Magenta
&H074A
Scott

Magenta
&7X7YL
Burnfield

White
&ZDRBL
McEachern

Maroon
&R5UGH
MacEacharn

Maroon
&8GRNP
Brennan
[born McDougal]
Olive
&SJFN1
Sweeney
[adopted]
Olive
&SIC6D
McKane - Glencoe or
Ardnamurchan
Dark Blue
&BVRFU
McDaniel

Blue-Black
&YZU8F
MacDonald - Keppoch,
Bohuntine, Tulloch
Olive-Black
&XBRBT
MacDonald

Blue Green-Black
&QJSPQ
McDonald

Green-Black
&OEFND
McDanel

Green-Black
&INRBB
McDonald

Green-Black
&TJZ9Q
McDonald

Pale Blue-Black
&S9ONQ
Wilson

Pale Blue-Black
&BATPB
MacDonald of Vallay
(Sleat)
Pink-Black
&8I0CO
MacDonald
Sleat
Pink-Black
&IEBH9
MacDonald
Sleat/Skye
Orange-Black
&4B1PQ
MacDonald
Sleat/Skye
Orange-Black
&HGPAO
McDonald

Orange-Black
&HQ7V5
McDonald

Violet-Black
&5XOBA
Ranald MacDonell
of Glengarry
Yellow Green-Black
&XEHTY
MacDonell

Yellow Green-Black
&1X14S
Skinner

Yellow Green-Black
&EDC4L
Ranald A. MacDonald
of Clanranald
Gray-Black
&L183C
MacDonald

Gray-Black
&UMQRT
McDonald

Gray-Black
&6ZKHB
MacDonald

Gray-Black
&YH6FD
MacDonald

Gray-Black
&JCVAM
McDonald
Kinlochmoidart
White-Black
&R0PJB
MacDonald
Kinlochmoidart?
White-Black
&2CSVD
Macdonald

White-Black
CTS4179 / 15453490
(more
for each
person)
 
 
6378496
YP5894 / 7358616
YP5895 / 7796983
9839843
9989180
14046102
14932542
YP5896 / 15461716
YP5897 / 21514846
YP5898 / 23805270
 
 
CLD36a CLFY1 FGC55647 / 24891933
 
YP704 / 8540496
 
CTS3390 S3443 / 14886792
CTS3802 S4442 / 15189906
CTS10875 S3455 / 22813144
(more
for each
person)
 
 
FGC36394 YP3950 / 6719120
YP705 / 8540506
FGC36397 / 14308690
S6790 / 16756340
FGC36400 / 17974877
FGC36404 / 22127667
FGC36407 / 22953535
 
FGC36395 / 7549349
FGC36396 / 9855222
FGC36398 / 15544914
FGC36399 / 17208994
FGC36401 / 21087817
FGC36402 / 21515123
FGC36403 / 21811867
FGC36406 / 22445853
22460730
 
 
8553790
9021349
15063943
15329122
18214051
18427029
22024152
 
 
YP1420 / 8586336
Y23341 / 14148294
YP1422 / 15001240
 
SK595 / 6932525
7365224
7563610
8476788
8881256
17819100
18023761
18427564
21036205
23300851
rs161294 / 24130304
 
 
7681646
YP5314 / 8644974
8862563
9647206
15787111
17559545
22477023
YP5315 / 22947342
YP5316 / 23069964
 
 
YP386 / 15054912
YP388 / 22968513
 
YP1434 / 7391570
YP1435 / 8749805
YP1436 / 8755409
YP1437 / 14170805
YP1438 / 14362356
14659823
YP1440 / 14914358
YP1442 / 17496628
YP1443 / 18384035
YP1444 / 18699952
YP1445 / 22606630
YP1446 / 28530075
 
 
YP383 / 2690863
YP384 / 7785076
YP385 / 8012177
YP387 / 16966284
YP412 / 21369271
 
2761348
6675768
8287714
F1541 / 9398567
9415105
Z16222 / 18289941
18895358
21345690
22461636
 
 
7051078
7467033
8695710
9405973
YP1169 / 14774010
15772392
17371852
YP1170 / 17533811
Z4923 / 19195568
22928273
 
 
FGC11904 YP276 / 16527121
 
7597697
8526939
YP5725 / 13825458
YP5726 / 14408344
15765109
YP5727 / 16576798
YP5728 / 17751209
Z10947 Z26530 / 19044814
22473505
Y5561 Z20180 / 22473506
22890428
 
 
L176.1 / 21779256 Insert AAAAC (STR 6 > 7)
YP274 FGC11888 / 2889154
FGC11903 YP275 / 16223264
FGC11908 YP277 / 18137930
FGC11912 YP278 / 19221288
FGC11913 YP279 / 19231100
FGC11915 YP281 / 21181095
 
YP531 / 14006034
YP532 / 14237649
YP533 / 15978925
YP534 / 17696067
YP535 / 18069012
YP536 / 19473611
YP537 / 22072716
YP538 / 22729753
YP539 / 23640959
YP540 / 23862552
 
 
YP280 Z17652 / 22462275
 
CLD60 / 17281879
18391294
 
2682253
FGC52680 / 7683545
FGC52682 / 8485294
9006673
ZS7374 / 14918089
FGC52686 / 14996069
16593205
19045388
FGC52687 / 21659876
FGC52688 / 21810615
 
 
8475417
9850196
15904436
22711005
 
 
A371 YP507 / 2891073
A372 / 8124137
Y10819 / 8124138
A373 YP508 / 23571263
 
7189085
YP4726 / 8604892
YP4727 / 22771683
YP4728 / 24418968
 
 
YP4957 / 14480959
M1960 / 18076003
YP4958 / 23075820
 
13648306
19256765
22470383
 
 
18640899
21231928
21410960
 
14127693
16553506
17919700
21608820
 
 
7167509
7212438
CTS3230 / 14753523
 
 
YP4899 / 8173136
YP4900 / 8790571
YP4901 / 17081996
YP4902 / 18714677
YP4903 / 21656293
YP4904 / 21656437
YP4905 / 22631544
YP4906 / 24457458
 
 
FGC11917 YP330 / 21515465
 
15009800
15561730
16283098
16850342
17402727
17895440
19161722
19395683
21487601
22439203
22863983
22864001
22864697
23053316
A8853 / 23511507
24212406
ZS1728 / 25305202
F686 / 26134809
 
 
FGC11897 YP327 / 8391799
FGC11898 YP328 / 14248578
 
CLD62 YP4871 / 2889565
13864793
CLD63 YP4872 / 21341956
CLD64 / 22437346
CLD65 YP4873 / 23526265
 
6869802
8413887
15729721
16788499
 
 
L267 / 2888591
18161125
22461347
 
 
FGC11892 YP326 / 6777158
 
YP5543 / 17603037
 
CLD66 / 8347442
CLD67 / 18099157
Z2198 / 19103890
CLD68 / 21734534
FGC18704 / 22465802
CLD69 / 23637364
 
 
7677850
ZS4529 / 8982048
9093177
16189574
23589804
 
 
FGC11896 / 8027766
 
CLD13 / 7013998
CLD15 / 7508660
CLD20 / 10003955
CLD22 / 14350752
CLD24 / 16457741
CLD29 / 21461074
CLD32 / 22469064
 
 
CLD56 / 22269650 to 22271710 Delete
CLD57 / 22228000 to 22229350 Delete
 
CLD34 / 23199076
 
 
CLD21 / 10022298
FGC11911 CLD28 / 19060347
 
 
CLD16 / 7867147
 
 
CLD25 / 17308229
 
CLD17 / 8068784
CLD35 / 23959966
 
 
CLD61 / 14124361
 
8839810
16233916
18596032
 
 
7367178
8335078
24493737
 
 
L175 / 21896078 to 21896081 Delete
 
CLD23 / 15508505
 
 
CLD30 / 21718124
CLD31 YP5783 / 22294151
 
 
CLD18 / 8161649
CLD49 Z2884 / 23881858
 
CLD27 / 18745122
 
FGC31429 / 9812631
FGC31433 / 22054507
FGC31435 / 22664470
 
 
CLD26 / 17493145
 
 
CLD55 / 7566062
 
6103334
8545374
17809319
22470188
 
 
19305693
 
 
14084986
15525899
18235824
Y993 / 21331763
 
 
CLD12 / 6897665
CLD33 / 23021342
 
CLD70 / 8615713
CLD71 / 9876485
CLD72 / 15534214
 
 
YP6398 / 17716141
 
CLD40 / 9453769
CLD41 / 9453770
CLD39 / 14309365
 
 
CLD90 / 15090478
CLD91 / 15678371
CLD92 / 19546751
 
 
CLD73 / 7616902
CLD74 / 14338724
CLD75 / 18854053
 
 
CLD50 / 22444536
 
CLD52 / 18150002
CLD53 / 21164348
CLD54 / 28711272
 
 
CLD83 / 8306921
CLD84 / 18388835
CLD85 / 18890223
CLD86 / 23617286
 
(None)
 
 
CLD87 / 17207082
CLD88 / 23196078
 
 
CLD76 / 16839679
CLD77 / 23240521
CLD78 / 23275740
 
 
CLD79 / 8086644
CLD80 / 13430035
CLD81 / 17984470
 
 
CLD51 / 21431006
 
A6730 / 23967714
 
 
A6731 / 17809763
 
 
7233901
8311080
14832516
 
 

The R1b Results, a quick look

Our people in major haplogroup Rib are far more diverse than the R1a Somerled people above. We show their relations below, with their sub-groups indicated in text. This chart works in the same way as the R1a one above. Our classifications have held up well to the scrutiny of BigY. We urge R1b people to contact us about testing SNPs that will help us classify accurately far more people.

Glencoe
&UKTZP
Yellow
&W4JAQ
Green-Black
&NWNTX
Gray
&Q8ZGJ
Yellow
&IA706
White-Blue
&WH3P7
Yellow
&8GWDW
Brown-Black
&CQQLI
Brown-Black
&PPOX7
Brown-Black
&1MEDV
Brown-Black
&GCIGS
Blue-Black
&XQSH5
Olive-Black
&GD9ZE
Olive-Black
&JU4PM
Olive-Black
&ZWLWE
Olive-Black
&LLNQV
Olive-Black
&0QLYZ
Olive-Black
&QCBGW
Olive-Black
&SWO7B
Olive-Black
&GF2NX
Pale Violet-Black
&KKIMZ
Pale Violet-Black
&MMVML
Pale Violet-Black
&81OKF
Olive-Black
&LCMAZ
Olive-Black
&VEQOG
Olive-Black
&Z9ZNE
Olive-Black
FG_czkge_
Olive-Black
&PPKTP
Olive-Black
&26WBI
Olive-Black
&SAXGD
Olive-Black
Anonymous
Olive-Black
&GHRKY
Olive-Black
&HFKKA
Olive-Black
&7QGYC
Olive-Black
&UBJGM
Olive-Black
&L26FS
Red Orange-Black
&X0T1Y
Red Orange-Black
&HBFWJ
Red Orange-Black
&HYVRM
Magenta-Black
&RAEZJ
Gray-Blue
&PKMEY
Gray-Blue
&RIFHZ
Magenta-Black
&JL9VU
Magenta-Black
&0Q8YO
Pale Violet
&ZNJXX
Pale Violet
&4OUY2
Pale Violet
&CVFJ1
Pale Violet
&UK2BP
Magenta-Black
&SYV7I
Magenta-Black
&YCNVW
Yellow Green-Black
&VA2IV
Green
&IH5QN
Yellow Green-Blue
&E3IFD
Yellow Green-Blue
&EUWZT
Yellow Green-Blue
&BEOJK
Yellow Green-Blue
&S0RGJ
Yellow Green-Blue
&FTP3E
Pink-Blue
&JUIZV
Pink-Blue
&V9SY2
Violet-Blue
&LOHBG
Brown-Black
&NKR5O
Gray-Black
&KYL40
Gray-Black
&8JQAL
Gray-Black
&TTUEC
Pale Blue-Black
&W7IDV
Pale Blue-Black
&XDNXM
Brown-Black
&RLAYA
Red-Blue
&GDWM5
Red-Blue
&2LKA0
Red-Blue
&LSP8J
Red-Blue
&QGHOF
Blue Green-Blue
&29AJK
Red-Blue
&ZRGC6
Red-Blue
&SU6CY
Red-Blue
&LOWSV
Red-Blue
&GXKSJ
Red-Blue
&6BVSO
Red-Blue
&DPGCQ
Red-Black
&7DQLU
Brown-Black
&4RHA0
Olive
Anonymous
Olive
&SFWL0
Olive
&DAO7N
Olive
&YHCYD
Olive
&VCCAK
Red
&EWX1B
Pale Blue
&G4IB8
Red
&IPXGT
Red
&SHOAD
Magenta-Blue
&FPUYA
Magenta-Blue
&ELVRZ
Magenta-Blue
P311 S128 / 18248698
6660753
S9977 / 7218833
A8472 / 7406103
A8473 / 7545158
7938363
A8479 / 7952147
A8481 / 8203249
8435536
S11481 / 8455290
8695011
8969911
A8485 / 9872303
A8486 / 9894481
A8498 / 14168445
A8499 / 14222525
CTS4528 S1200 / 15697457
S17624 / 15812704
S17720 / 15910164
S18067 / 16264968
16894244
M7851 / 17073647
S19274 / 17139017
A8517 / 17344256
S19837 / 17516586
S19935 / 17595219
17957199
S21770 / 19086960
21860659
21903064
22097880
22824191
S25757 / 23625939
27937501
 
 
P312 S116 / 22157311
 
2659579
Z2245 / 7071234
8034783
8340569
Z2246 / 8388960
8457610
8471434
A5618 / 8970445
9149719
13841574
14320119
14665089
15818810
15881452
16326693
Z2247 / 17304752
A6290 / 17315636
17658637
18883295
18883982
19051693
L238 S182 / 21253443
Z2248 / 21295175
21388323
21605838
21827123
A6289 / 22140649
22480071
22484705
rs543636217 / 23638865
23964715
28688720
 
 
6636831
FGC45485 / 7325464
FGC45486 / 7811302
FGC45487 / 7875083
8192562
ZS6908 / 8682970
FGC45489 / 8970908
Z30600 / 9821655
FGC45493 / 13818403
FGC45495 / 14170130
Z20463 / 14231482
FGC45500 / 17168703
FGC45501 / 18252955
18882960
FGC45503 / 18956640
Z30596 / 19314263
FGC45504 / 20813678
Z30597 / 21465748
Z30598 / 22605877
FGC45511 / 22700819
FGC45513 / 23738625
24355727
 
 
7617281
8317571
8327493
PF2429 / 8454068
9407372
13632582
13656873
L20 S144 / 14231292
PF6570 U152 / 15333149
15767775
16413786
17243981
17363551
17477700
17480672
17804599
17841882
18922911
19066612
Y7064 / 21688439
22442248
22467063
22467778
22619142
22736770
22892088
23119245
23300025
23389084
23962705
 
 
7352433
FGC22210 / 7401746
7589587
Y5058 FGC22195 / 7892132
Y5059 FGC22205 / 8180973
8213671
9112194
Y5060 FGC22211 / 9172078
Y5061 FGC22192 / 9398436
Y5062 FGC22194 / 9868225
FGC22193 / 13654263
FGC22208 / 13655586
Y5063 FGC22196 / 13983440
Y5064 FGC22217 / 14002957
Y5065 FGC22191 / 14197141
Y5066 FGC22207 / 14505071
FGC22218 / 14876209
15508771
Y5067 FGC22212 / 16439543
Y5068 FGC22198 / 17335197
Y5072 FGC22202 / 17818968
17893289
Y5075 FGC22213 / 18005447
Y5069 FGC22206 / 18033772
Y5070 FGC22224 / 19074078
19151299
Y5071 FGC22204 / 20825970
Y5076 FGC22190 / 21159234
Y5077 FGC22203 / 21340968
21704711
FGC22225 / 21729808
Y5073 FGC22209 / 21846060
22478187
22521866
23626657
FGC31188 / 24536377
 
 
2865484
FGC49736 / 8865464
FGC49737 / 9085474
13670877
FGC49739 / 14358659
FGC49740 / 14772621
FGC49741 / 14952190
FGC49742 / 15944973
PH2047 / 16094188
FGC49743 / 16255134
FGC49744 / 16695487
FGC49745 / 18400641
FGC49746 / 18705424
FGC49747 / 18721282
FGC49748 / 19004093
FGC49750 / 20806789
FGC45618 / 21508323
FGC49751 / 21548788
Z1513 / 21854982
FGC49757 / 22655995
FGC49758 / 22823673
24465496
 
 
Y2598 S552 / 4619767
L459 / 5275051
L21 S145 / 15654428
Z260 / 24411932
S461 Z290 / 28632468
 
CTS241 DF13 S521 / 2836431
CTS8221 Z2542 / 17885577
 
Z17970 / 2785000
Z17971 / 6906304
7191465
S10707 / 7825977
7869358
Z17972 / 7881624
8106570
Z17973 / 8191442
Z17974 / 8551147
S11699 / 8598673
13735360
13735362
14039812
14169737
CTS3386 S3658 / 14885174
15696338
S17999 / 16224370
17416284
Z17975 / 17889093
S20753 / 18174116
18234409
CTS10044 / 19224135
21412647
Z17977 / 21532462
Z17978 / 21858477
22559427
Z17979 / 22567903
S25201 / 23140981
S25948 / 23899557
 
 
Z18090 / 6647596
Z18091 / 6816930
Z18092 / 7159579
Z18093 / 7815626
Z18094 / 8127653
S11556 / 8488528
Z18095 / 8666792
Z5303 / 8765768
Z18096 / 9842438
Y15787 / 14010495
Z18097 / 14043089
Z18099 / 14958884
15784924
Z18100 / 15912530
Y15785 YFS374634 / 16203419
A2158 Y11914 / 16230611
Z18101 / 17870290
A2159 Y11915 / 21070690
Z18104 / 21431928
A2160 Y11917 / 22201494
23729854
Y15786 YFS374681 / 24438776
 
 
7216032
7528795
7571186
8532665
9400118
9785770
14807667
14862719
14953670
15004225
15703626
16287322
Z29813 / 17091937
17368258
S19862 / 17534389
A7835 / 17911431
21401901
21710655
21878294
Z28530 / 21911661
A4323 / 22462777
22817917
FGC40925 / 22858135
23254182
23784464
25944592
 
 
2704849
6363883
Y2370 FGC8000 / 8018177
8023185
8292101
FGC13017 / 8488730
FGC13019 / 8801892
13810594
A7742 / 14173004
14202349
FGC13023 / 14309487
CTS2501 S836 / 14331384
FGC13024 / 14453083
S16379 FGC13026 / 14763348
A7744 / 14871525
A957 / 15028411
A7745 / 16690777
CTS6581 DF41 S524 / 16992602
A7746 / 17100671
A7747 / 17647873
A7748 / 18209734
18837924
FGC13036 / 19420072
A7750 / 21594592
21682024
22087771
S839 Y2373 / 22178509
22467704
22468921
22653101
FGC10481 / 22722244
22887224
23161939
23783547
23986288
 
 
FGC19414 / 6679988
FGC31786 / 7157806
FGC19423 / 8413608
FGC19424 / 9029197
FGC19426 / 13371971
FGC19431 / 14473832
FGC19436 / 15310676
FGC9661 / 16264788
FGC19441 / 17288078
FGC19442 / 17333654
FGC19443 / 17339692
FGC19445 / 18697170
FGC19448 / 19112023
FGC19450 / 19321446
FGC31787 / 21329125
FGC19452 / 21437113
FGC17906 / 21923601
FGC19455 / 23888835
 
 
S5284 / 8228683
S5264 / 8312986
S5257 SK2131 / 8657215
S730 / 14316964
CTS3057 / 14635223
S733 / 16695775
CTS6838 / 17138487
CTS7030 S735 / 17246645
S737 / 17958045
M10953 S738 S738 / 18861458
CTS10008 / 19206900
CTS10351 / 19417685
S742 / 21647915
PT1 Y2984 FGC9557 / 22185765
S747 / 22201567
L1335 S530 / 23154201
CTS11722 L1065 S749 / 23237322
PT2 Y2985 FGC9559 / 23557761
S5285 / 23955750
 
A1543 / 8211740
A1544 / 8486054
Z16329 / 13674507
Y5741 Z16330 / 17395688
A1541 / 23598958
 
8262073
9143513
 
 
14770200
 
 
S744 / 22121805
 
S764 / 2871968
S7370 / 19038219
 
FGC23764 / 7530966
17138749
17559391
FGC23770 / 22187989
22646054
FGC23771 / 22847491
 
 
A861 / 9761419
FGC32902 Y11804 / 14504198
FGC32903 Y12534 / 16218272
FGC32905 Y12535 / 18829129
FGC32907 Y11806 / 21959521
FGC32910 Y11807 / 23864294
 
 
17080428
Z17614 / 18763117
22568476
Z3523 S25662 / 23525329
 
 
6844646
7437698
8503405
9102122
ZS9159 / 13715827
13720256
15190625
16679766
17048993
17755152
18095354
19034713
20828466
21369870
22097899
22565462
 
 
L743 / 7246779
FGC35644 / 15879765
Z16326 / 16821735
FGC35641 / 17366661
FGC35645 / 18161664
FGC35646 / 22571307
28229336
 
 
2859504
7880045
16681970
A6099 / 17187027
17427615
A6100 / 18167184
22771169
A6102 / 23739302
rs35484112 / 23882036
 
 
Z17611 FGC17596 / 2710015
BY150 / 7789427
Z17612 FGC17595 / 8352386
Z17613 FGC17597 / 17419502
 
13657663
14414598
 
 
BY3137 / 15562303
 
14004107
22459806
 
 
(None)
 
 
Z16328 / 9084294
S756 / 17141666
Y6027 Z16327 / 22514844
 
Z18437 / 9754793
M3966 / 9850292
Y15601 Z36246 / 9850309
Y14725 / 9850337
Z17640 / 9850346
19045736
19046648
 
 
BY154 / 14281409
 
8391716
8420948
15954751
17851559
18039029
18251585
 
 
FGC50086 / 8862847
FGC50088 / 15426761
FGC50090 / 19289986
 
 
FGC17058 / 23149287
 
(None)
 
 
(None)
 
 
FGC50014 / 21842029
 
FGC50013 / 20826047
FGC50015 / 24879274
 
 
18127004
21880522
 
 
A7793 / 13799338
A33 / 15535033
A35 / 17571418
A37 / 18655437
 
BY196 / 9321336
 
 
(None)
 
 
S691 Z13851 / 15982867
 
6699970
8719482
9844621
15133537
15535387
15803007
17575904
22467424
22599454
 
 
A848 / 7763827
A849 / 7808000
A850 / 8702341
A851 / 8823363
A853 / 18787960
FGC9642 / 22473424
A855 / 23575945
 
(None)
 
 
(None)
 
 
Z2510 CTS4554 / 15711053
22118355
 
 
S1113 / 6974483
S1115 / 7178321
A81 Z3025 / 8586614
S1120 / 14710233
CTS3974 / 15303402
S1122 / 15540246
CTS4466 S1136 / 15660495
CTS5714 S1137 / 16452022
Z3022 CTS8358 / 17955030
S1128 / 19237370
Z16247 FGC11133 / 22458619
CTS11267 / 23043823
A149 FGC11137 / 23894624
 
FGC36621 / 8601423
FGC36622 / 8695324
FGC36624 / 9439282
Z16251 FGC11139 / 13599491
FGC29280 / 14363549
Y6238 Z16252 FGC11147 / 14583239
FGC36625 / 14918253
S1121 / 14966995
17114747
S1126 / 18196891
S1129 / 21189066
A542 / 21772624
FGC36626 / 22992232
A543 / 28785906
 
 
A155 Z12652 / 7718251
A761 / 13526327
A156 / 15461923
A157 / 18075706
A88 / 18384907
A89 / 18572166
A158 / 18960438
A90 / 22576571
 
(None)
 
 
15845118
 
 
DF21 S192 / 9878915
 
A6484 / 2904845
BY8979 / 6152927
A6486 / 7068224
A6487 / 7147451
A6489 / 7614365
A6490 / 7835335
A6491 / 8249647
BY8978 / 13650843
A6494 / 15620893
A6495 / 15782386
A6496 / 17509943
A6497 / 17789107
A6498 / 18910258
A6499 / 18923596
S5488 / 19088630
BY8993 / 22485684
A6500 / 23003876
CTS11522 / 23148807
A6501 / 23420766
A6502 / 23424115
A6503 / 23967907
 
 
DF25 S253 / 2826066
S280 Z246 / 7061380
S281 Z248 / 14407732
DF5 S191 / 18393814
 
6932768
BY3455 / 6946276
BY4114 / 9503492
9746730
BY8221 / 13278719
13677368
BY4116 / 13820638
BY4117 / 15144654
BY4118 / 15216613
A5409 / 15275898
15568588
16838700
18077108
A5410 / 21398391
BY4124 / 21773361
BY4125 / 22296368
Z16264 / 22465123
22484317
Z16265 / 22514719
BY4127 / 22680490
L1403 / 22749787
BY4128 / 23153994
Z16266 / 23553255
 
 
Z29571 / 3409368
PH172 / 6742129
FGC3902 / 8050686
M9605 / 8423266
Z16539 / 8465191
Z29572 / 8617720
BY2875 Z29574 / 9062448
Z29575 / 13802663
PH1499 / 14891220
Y6484 FGC28449 / 14999735
CTS3655 S3787 / 15095379
Z29578 / 15461848
PH1885 / 15900960
Z29579 / 16088754
17110548
PH4457 / 19370801
Z16540 / 19513314
Z29580 / 21045972
ZS4682 / 21859144
Z29581 / 22957218
Z29582 / 23135802
 
 
BY2719 Z30228 / 2738040
BY3830 / 7463491
BY2725 Z30229 / 8443110
BY3350 / 14168888
BY3353 / 14752418
15654143
S3058 FGC3188 / 15683936
16559037
18050051
18126807
BY3359 / 19224711
BY3723 / 21090063
BY3724 / 21094472
22553234
22562689
BY3725 / 23301358
BY3726 / 23344513
BY3727 / 23407635
BY4428 / 23851123
BY4429 / 23993068
24071959
BY4430 / 24411847
 
 
Z2993 / 3078750
S951 Z3000 / 7260995
A51 Z3001 / 8684816
Z3002 / 9110935
Z16267 / 13682882
S954 Z3003 / 14714431
S956 Z3004 / 15208574
S957 Z3005 / 15315574
S962 Z3008 / 16661938
S964 Z3010 / 17114294
S966 Z3011 / 18093489
S967 Z3012 / 18170406
A60 Z3013 / 18405969
A62 Z3015 / 21307408
A63 Z3016 / 21361431
Z16269 / 23516123
 
8666002
14855813
15090687
15605976
16889486
17510441
17589441
18634162
21674834
Y12532 / 21911749
23197410
 
 
A938 / 8193514
 
A939 / 14343608
A940 / 16243549
A941 / 16341855
A942 / 21425928
22470075
A943 / 24463516
 
6734552
 
6794213
23022739
 
 
(None)
 
 
17979168
 
 
(None)
 
 
BY3249 / 17599363
 
6733837
22463983
 
 
14245633
14534110
YFS131512 / 22673321
 
 
A7923 / 2974954
BY3163 / 8090131
BY3188 / 23890112
 
16229176
17758011
17845477
21880548
23153435
23553128
 
 
10006643
13135677
15206243
BY3172 / 15312712
BY3173 / 15326374
BY3178 / 17197321
A7924 / 19409629
21862831
22574782
 
 
S279 Z249 / 5818205
S469 Z250 M11050 / 7001743
L956 DF1 L513 S215 / 7340450
CTS5396 S5196 / 16250226
S5194 / 18151746
S5191 / 20832490
 
Z16386 FGC11794 / 8106090
8559984
Z16387 FGC11790 / 8844562
Z16388 FGC11808 / 9061159
Z16389 FGC11787 / 9837944
Z16390 FGC11809 / 9852061
9881995
Z16545 FGC11793 / 13209890
Z16392 FGC11807 / 14664871
14820579
Z16546 FGC11797 / 15581048
BY416 / 16409074
BY17 Z16385 FGC11802 / 17031540
17518092
18386282
Z16395 FGC11801 / 19273492
Z17632 / 19682374
Z16396 FGC11803 / 21827692
23156997
24412573
 
 
FGC39621 / 2886728
FGC39622 / 8406562
FGC39623 / 8482551
FGC39625 / 14143584
FGC39627 / 15046305
FGC39628 / 15095919
FGC39629 / 15510998
FGC39630 / 15551517
PH1752 / 15555006
FGC39631 / 15939901
FGC39634 / 17079772
FGC39635 / 17347377
FGC13437 / 18197358
FGC39636 / 18422248
FGC39637 / 18563876
FGC39638 / 18615665
FGC39639 / 18890343
FGC39640 / 22201332
FGC39641 / 22443855
FGC39642 / 22549778
FGC39643 / 23046458
FGC39644 / 23195573
FGC39645 / 23591714
 
 
S5668 / 2700269
FGC9776 / 6795128
A2 BY15 Y4129 FGC13493 FGC22491 / 22471600
 
FGC9787 / 2763643
FGC9795 / 6357112
FGC9807 / 6962022
FGC9816 / 7460050
FGC9794 / 8331355
FGC9804 / 8353954
FGC9777 / 13666519
Z17265 FGC9773 / 13821944
FGC9798 / 14038426
FGC9801 / 14406673
FGC16898 / 14507158
Z16341 FGC9797 / 14588668
FGC9809 / 14749413
Z16337 FGC9808 / 14899954
FGC9811 / 15967821
FGC9800 / 16340543
FGC9793 / 16370336
FGC9810 / 16518346
FGC9780 / 16646142
BY2598 / 17003452
FGC9784 / 17654426
FGC9803 / 17670438
Z16342 FGC9785 / 17979434
FGC9775 / 18726353
FGC9786 / 19384703
BY2599 / 22362206
Z16334 / 22459938
Z16335 / 22462003
Z16336 / 22465117
Z16339 FGC9790 / 22569433
FGC9778 / 23234173
S25893 / 23843638
24465311
 
 
A7 FGC13499 / 17847710
 
8146766
Z21253 / 8209128
BY11186 / 8408170
Z21254 / 14323108
Z21255 / 14595400
Z21266 / 14880532
Z21267 / 14912681
BY11195 / 15723117
S7834 / 15984985
S7828 / 16200166
M8092 / 16346251
Z21256 / 17583154
Z21257 / 17873097
Z21258 / 18814328
Z21268 / 19113010
Z21259 / 19390192
S7835 / 21366265
Z21260 / 21399858
BY11203 / 21460531
Z21261 / 21592910
S7826 / 22670733
23595050
Z21264 / 23617421
Z21265 / 23617943
 
 
Z17819 FGC13494 / 7560292
Z17820 FGC13496 / 8023626
Z17821 / 8599944
rs2594573 / 9489954
9496654
Z18489 / 14025282
Z18490 / 15809487
Z17822 FGC13498 / 16436039
BY473 / 17492965
Z18491 / 18978453
19087733
Z18492 / 21761003
21815668
Z18493 / 21980043
Z17824 FGC13504 / 22477163
Z17825 FGC13505 / 22539923
BY474 / 22563132
23562371
 
 
L193 S176 / 6753344
Z17621 / 13496480
Z17623 / 13982927
A4 / 14666692
A5 / 15840319
S5992 / 16337441
A6 / 16610345
S7123 / 18172011
S5990 / 18570311
Z16332 / 19359992
S5979 / 19423406
S5982 / 21638476
Z16333 / 22469857
 
7878718
Z17817 / 9835982
13865156
FGC30223 / 14774632
16308432
18927110
19282068
 
 
Z17813 / 6950824
A1063 / 7823935
A1064 / 7842991
A1065 / 8444479
Z17814 / 9149451
A1067 / 15138460
A1068 / 15159871
A1069 / 16775937
BY207 Z18067 / 20641470
Z17815 / 22750552
Z17816 / 23593870
A1071 / 23955434
 
 
A999 / 23709848
 
FGC13899 / 2829379
6761816
7333476
7674198
13714736
PH1103 / 14294745
14888942
15047387
15509364
15715769
L159 S169 / 15810964
16202567
16557467
16570171
17038151
17047688
Z16222 / 18289941
18805707
19086845
19091205
20047330
22685106
23266828
23348099
23781178
 
 
BY595 / 8059533
BY596 / 8101674
BY597 / 8140933
8447746
BY599 / 9850032
BY600 / 13200022
BY601 / 13852842
CTS1751 S3666 / 14048611
14322585
Z17967 / 14484611
BY602 / 14838753
BY603 / 14847603
16133832
16182885
Z17968 / 16640606
Z17969 / 17937269
BY606 / 18752368
19456326
19529844
BY607 / 22157657
BY608 / 23150240
BY609 / 23191365
BY610 / 23267677
23459494
 
 
Z16892 / 7609838
Z16886 / 7620916
Z16893 / 7648483
Z16894 / 7900675
Z16895 / 8081266
Z16887 / 14039081
Z16897 / 14932347
Z16898 / 15023496
Z16899 / 15416050
Z16900 / 15451280
Z16902 / 16691848
Z16903 / 17803868
Z16888 / 18681316
CTS9623 / 18995241
Z16889 / 19093503
S1026 / 19201991
Z16904 / 21089472
Z16890 / 21518890
Z16905 / 22119876
Z16907 / 22682043
Z16908 / 24390496
 
BY2733 / 9903883
BY2666 / 13997320
BY2672 / 14924626
FGC43694 / 15526900
BY2679 / 16299796
BY2682 / 16527383
FGC43697 / 17927796
24364396
 
 
BY2601 / 2724593
BY2602 / 16252778
BY2604 / 18663567
BY2605 / 22200199
 
(None)
 
 
A999 / 23709848
 
 
S218 Z253 / 7193034
S868 Z2534 / 19033817
S471 Z252 / 22471235
 
Z35826 / 2807063
FGC36344 / 6716762
FGC36345 / 6868115
FGC36346 / 8582930
FGC36347 / 8797139
FGC36348 / 10045940
FGC36350 / 13661848
CTS2646 Z2182 S882 / 14403983
S883 Z2184 / 15339857
FGC36352 / 17516945
FGC36353 / 17911742
FGC36354 / 18557753
FGC36355 / 18609977
CTS9975 Z2185 / 19180465
19187890
19187891
FGC36358 / 21642123
FGC36359 / 23091364
FGC36360 / 23534926
Z2186 / 23752306
FGC36361 / 24377156
FGC36362 / 28784979
 
 
6346989
BY279 / 6960552
6967315
8126885
Y9162 / 8223985
8355745
8363147
YP4624 / 8411886
Z2189 / 8548391
Z2190 / 8584046
Z2191 / 8676273
8818019
14185083
S928 / 15510818
15524064
15832452
16326262
S932 / 17321828
17685550
17946208
S934 Z2195 / 18167186
S935 Z2197 / 18899760
Z2198 / 19103890
21053390
S939 F3808 Z2201 / 21897171
Z2202 / 22156214
22460514
22463624
22465506
22860120
 
 
DF49 S474 / 22735599
 
BY2606 / 2814451
BY2607 / 6789122
BY2608 / 8039324
A6080 / 8472687
BY2609 / 8803948
BY2610 / 13849415
BY2611 / 14335481
BY2612 / 14803688
BY2613 / 15086832
BY2614 / 15552783
BY2615 / 15716673
A6081 / 16376719
A6082 / 16432311
BY2617 / 16692557
BY2618 / 17140765
BY2619 / 17344045
BY2620 / 17834010
A6083 / 17867162
BY2621 / 17976770
A6084 / 18193298
CTS9880 / 19118141
BY2623 / 19503729
A6085 / 19529839
BY2624 / 21073744
FGC35635 / 21174348
BY2625 / 21188707
21312583
Z18480 / 21391961
BY2626 / 22061571
BY2628 / 23139056
BY2629 / 23139997
 
 
DF104 S661 / 2805834
Z2956 / 2822914
Z2961 / 7855252
FGC449 Y2596 S7072 / 8157356
Z2962 / 8180494
Z2963 / 8224850
S6155 Z2965 / 8909149
BY196 / 9321336
Y2601 / 9574554
S635 Z2968 / 14010329
DF106 S658 / 14418666
DF105 S659 / 14595932
M222 Page84 / 14902414
S641 Z2973 / 15344019
S476 Z2976 / 15994422
S645 Z2977 / 16419368
DF23 S193 / 17774409
Z2983 S6146 S475 / 19391822
Z2985 S7068 / 22440517
Z2986 S6137 / 22477109
DF109 S660 / 22540855
S651 Z2988 / 23295679
S652 Z2989 / 23480728
S6152 Z2990 / 23581931
S6149 Y2602 FGC438 / 23856771
S6141 Z2991 / 23959290
 
6774485
8108277
8255447
9171824
9988513
13987520
18136968
22458119
23023672
 
 
8977656
9471293
rs113158142 / 13717258
14321538
A6903 / 14436052
16243973
18931586
M2619 / 21463582
BY121 / 22818750
24522294
 
 
FGC4108 S588 / 16345872
 
2912020
14781240
14801391
15917176
18413117
18945935
21835321
23246257
23388535
 
 
6824830
FGC23592 / 7310989
8445525
8833223
10007955
S603 FGC7928 / 13979841
Y50 / 14433613
15371470
15373869
18007775
 
 
2840210
7206305
8477140
15553142
16133326
16741922
17131406
A259 / 17669040
19494685
A260 / 22861537
24356062
 
 
7676164
8197723
FGC2708 / 9019358
9159491
Z18599 / 13711010
13716789
A223 Y3645 / 14226853
15555237
18251966
19160003
21175839
FGC45793 / 22486076
22845243
23238629
23443140
 
 
DF85 S675 / 23334448
 
6863319
FGC12355 / 7991997
8414831
13663985
16368402
18119149
FGC28352 / 18243640
23148915
 
 
Y7007 FGC8738 / 9386687
S668 / 16465133
DF97 / 22631679
S673 / 22705282
 
6985116
rs77236734 / 10022288
13684696
21053760
23034011
 
 
A1332 BY470 / 8048330
8087684
FGC8840 / 9162979
15654579
15966171
22440826
A1331 BY472 / 23965625
 
 
7309050
8089739
18060787
18397643
ZS7106 / 23021187
 
ZS3676 / 8859919
9105442
9838420
A6903 / 14436052
14967028
18835544
19216978
21512787
 
 
8414036
8591587
9847993
PF6936 / 16817950
17332295
17436922
S19747 / 17463207
 
 
DF63 CTS300 S522 / 2883986
 
A91 / 2818621
A92 / 8339189
BY561 / 8865439
BY655 / 9100008
BY563 / 14317050
A93 / 15031211
A94 / 15112706
Z16244 ZZ15_1 / 16107330
BY564 / 16194999
BY565 / 16196993
BY566 / 16666772
BY567 / 17064154
CTS6919 S3689 / 17195548
BY568 / 17609294
BY569 / 17705837
BY570 / 18365719
A7796 / 18816313
BY571 / 19036514
BY572 / 19381348
A95 / 19516226
BY573 / 19750814
BY574 / 21730648
22440812
PF6513 / 22460570
Z16243 / 22478814
BY671 / 22519438
22817908
Z6033 / 23020455
BY672 / 23758322
BY673 / 24523234
28734090
 
 
BY2584 / 7751633
BY2585 / 8099331
BY2586 / 8467026
BY2588 / 15589917
BY2589 / 15811170
M6955 CTS5454 / 16288097
BY2590 / 17365399
17703077
Z16245 / 17768959
BY2591 / 19125868
BY2592 / 19309865
BY2593 / 20820063
BY2595 / 21452899
22310370
BY2596 / 24481845
 
 
S227 Z195 / 17922066
 
Y5124 / 2831739
BY129 Y5120 / 8221968
Y5110 / 8579011
BY130 Y5111 / 9643565
Y5113 / 16648828
Y5122 / 17052212
Y5115 / 17409425
Y5123 / 17442340
BY209 Y5118 / 18044691
Y5126 / 18259084
Y5327 / 18666520
BY134 Y5128 / 19493204
Y5134 / 21891653
L165 S68 / 21930315
Y5129 / 22464432
Y5131 / 22957087
BY135 Y5132 / 23150877
Y5133 / 23605895
 
Y5108 / 7625360
 
13230728
15724907
19219593
22672335
 
 
6836039
7881543
9797897
17695638
 
 
13647609
18116603
22438978
 
 
13205885
Y17559 / 16659328
Y17482 / 18392752
Y17560 / 21663458
22473368
Y17561 / 23989847
Y17562 / 23989850
 
19136828
 
 
8533121
22915739
 
 
S11695 SK2120 / 8596434
CTS7768 S1307 / 17651684
Z272 / 22440376
S1319 / 23237563
 
6876405
9647384
14275204
16482517
A4659 / 16646850
16965948
19265794
21908212
21990723
22002947
22464674
22466253
22573451
22612881
23433090
23753111
23793054
 
 
Y3470 FGC14113 / 8849102
 
6427804
6655260
BY779 / 8241290
9055703
14083386
15520189
16257850
17167360
17415724
17634328
18248180
18834794
18894011
19157565
FGC1150 / 22199192
Z37058 / 22465477
PF2460 FGC27678 / 22474810
22474840
22646729
22897131
22957682
23118712
 
 
FGC14115 / 2832173
FGC14117 / 7681522
FGC14118 / 8040623
FGC14124 / 14953259
FGC14125 / 15434567
16406421
FGC14126 / 16851387
FGC14129 / 17882023
18060624
18927914
FGC14132 / 19172626
FGC14133 / 21158335
FGC14135 / 21656096
Y5561 Z20180 / 22473506
22473512
22473519
FGC14136 / 22629007
FGC14139 / 23248506
FGC14140 / 23347497
 
(None)
 
 
(None)
 
 
S21 U106 / 8796078
 
2742995
7317879
7404346
S10271 / 7433271
7669035
S15502 / 14137806
15353319
S17370 / 15625897
16370357
16462235
S19178 / 17080785
17764198
18686912
19105057
21507844
S23189 / 21510954
S23365 / 21621095
21947273
22362232
22922976
S24931 / 22961533
S24982 / 22999591
S25671 / 23533486
FGC13737 / 23554150
L48 S162 / 23612197
24447974
 
 
FGC14759 / 2808784
FGC14761 / 6952252
FGC14762 / 7581713
FGC14764 / 8364801
FGC14765 / 8557017
FGC14766 / 8738230
FGC14758 / 13674933
S265 Z304 / 14052313
FGC14770 / 14298430
FGC14773 / 15779454
S264 Z156 / 15780341
FGC14775 / 16478493
FGC14777 / 17172049
FGC14778 / 17508720
FGC14779 / 17555962
FGC14780 / 17648150
S1894 / 18209989
FGC14782 / 18966757
FGC14783 / 19046472
S498 Z307 / 19047132
CTS10465 S1900 / 19470091
21571285
ZS4808 FGC22079 / 22436954
ZS4809 FGC22080 / 22436961
rs74709549 / 22436969
FGC14786 / 22465591
FGC14787 / 22475464
S1667 Z8161 / 22566768
S376 Z305 / 22605163
FGC14788 / 23090230
S1911 / 23165645
FGC14789 / 23364588
 
 
7129444
7726237
8900309
FGC30516 / 9457727
13827219
14105935
14910483
15987070
M467 U198 / 16839499
JFS0009 / 17291962
17404839
JFS2007 / 17712871
FGC43815 / 18161781
22024854
FGC12304 / 22465106
FGC43823 / 23060659
S1688 / 23115473
S1690 / 23291579
23743591
23799513
 
 

The code for the above illustrations was designed by Alex Williamson, whom we greatly thank.

Comments and questions are always welcome.

Contact me at .