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R1a Results

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R1b Classified Results

R1b Unclassified Results


Results of DNA tests taken by our participants may be viewed in several ways. First, the tables showing all results may be viewed using the menu at the left. Displaying this many results at once can be rather sluggish. Results may also be viewed in restricted sets, grouped as Haplogroups E, G, I, and J, or all of R1a, or all of R1b (also somewhat slow), or just the part of R1b classified into small groups, or just the unclassified R1b results.

Results obtained without a search are sorted with respect to the TMRCA from the "group modal", which has the most common value for each marker. For these the TMRCA for each individual listed is for comparing that person to a living person with that haplotype. Results of a search are sorted with respect to TMRCA from the search target. Note that they are sorted by TMRCA, not by the number of mismatched markers. For results tables without a search (header row says "Group Modals") the TMRCA column in that same row gives the TMRCA for the whole group, that is, the estimated number of generations since the common ancestor for everyone in the group lived. For the technically inclined, we also list the genetic distance, using the infinite alleles model, which is also used for the TMRCA calculations.

In the results for R1a, the haplogroup of Somerled, the names or codes of our Clan Chiefs, Iain Godfrey Macdonald of Sleat &CXYIE, Ranald MacDonell of Glengarry &5XOBA, and Ranald Alexander MacDonald of Clanranald &EDC4L, are color-coded blue. Allan Douglas MacDonald of Vallay &BATPB, Chieftain of the Vallay line, is colored green.

For Haplogroup R1b recent discoveries have found several child subhaplogroups of interest to the Clan Donald. Principal among these are numerous ones characterized by the marker L21 and ones characterized by L21 and also M222. Because of extreme overlapping, we have included few people with 12 or 25 markers in these groups. Such people really should upgrade to at BigY700. They can, of course, use our search function to find which group they most closely resemble.

The groups for R1b are listed in the order they appear in the FamilytreeDNA haplotree. We are no longer using the ISOGG tree because most participants want to compare their results to the FTDNA tree.  In order to convey the relation betwen haplogroup designations, we have included longer descriptions of them. For example R1b-DF21 (called R-DF21 by FTDNA) really is
and some are even longer, so we are removing
M207-M173-M343-L754-L389-P297-M269-L23-L51-L151 from almost all to give R1b-P311-P312-Z290-L21-DF13-DF21. Note that FTDNA's designation R-M269 is a very coarse designation. If FTDNA calls someone say R-M269 it means that they know you are classified in the chain as far as M269 but they can't if tell the next SNP is L23 or something else, but based on other criteria we may be able to do so. Prime among these criteria is being an a family group with a unique name like McQuiston.

For Haplogroup R1a the situation is simpler than for R1b. Though several new subhaplogroups have recently been found, most are restricted to people from eastern Europe. One, however, first found in one of our Chiefs, is designated R-YP326,  appears to be very closely related to Somerled himself. This mutation probably appeared in Somerled himself or only a very few generations earlier. See a chart showing relations downstream of this marker, delineating Clan subgroups such as Sleat or Clanranald, at our BigY results web page. R1a-YP326 is

People get placed in the yellow "undifferentiated" groups for several reasons. One reason is that they really are clearly different from everybody else. Another reason is that they don't have enough markers measured to be actually sure which group to place them in; we are now classifying only people with 37 or more markers. The final reason is that, while to the eye they may look to be grouped, the computer algorithms say that the grouping is uncertain.

How to find yourself in our results tables and charts

For privacy reasons we have not listed participants' FTDNA numerical codes.  All participants have been assigned a Clan Donald code and denoted by an & sign. If you do not know where you are on these tables or charts, use our "Search" function on your Clan Donald code. If you do not know your Clan Donald Code, contact our DNA page webmaster.  Clicking on a Clan Donald code will generate results tables sorted with that person at the top and other persons in increasing order of TMRCA. The results of this are restricted to a limited number of generations, which is set using the "Search" page. This feature is a primary method of determining family associations.

Note that closeness of STR haplotypes is no guarantee of being related in genealogical time (say, as an easily remembered date, 1066). The most definitive indicator of relation is given by the tree determined by the BigY, see our BigY results web page.

Our database contains publicly visible people and was last updated on